The postburn-in trees from all four runs were assumed to be independent samples from the posterior probability distribution, and thus were combined to produce a phylogram and a 50% majority-rule consensus tree. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. They have eight short arms and two long tentacles that are usually tucked neatly into their arms. Sepia pharaonis. When the baby cuttlefish are fully developed, they can be seen 'swimming' inside the egg and already able to change colors. Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh_cuttlefish, Length: 33cm Depth: 0-130m Found: Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific Eats: crustaceans, fish Family: Cuttlefishes Scientific Family: Sepiidae. The initial tree topology does not seem to influence model selection, as long as the tree used is not a random topology (Posada & Crandall, 2001); neighbour joining was used only because it is a fast method to generate a ‘better-than-random’ tree. In analyses of the partitioned datasets, all model parameters except topology and branch lengths were unlinked across partitions. Volume 1. They usually … the coasts of south Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa). Finally, Norman's S. pharaonis II appears to comprise at least two genetically distinct groups: our western Pacific subclade (comprising samples from Taiwan and the Gulf of Thailand) and our northeastern Australia subclade. Unfortunately, we lack the samples from the southern or eastern Persian Gulf that would allow us to test this possibility. Atlas of Living Australia. A total of 141 out of 684 sites for COI were variable and 109 of these were parsimony-informative within Sepia pharaonis. Sepia pharaonis (pharaoh cuttlefish) is a large cuttlefish species, growing to 80 cm in mantle length. COI sequences from this study plus 16S rRNA sequences from Anderson et al., 2007) and two ‘three-gene analyses' (comprising all COI, 16S rRNA and rhodopsin sequences generated here and in Anderson et al., 2007). Thermal cycling regimes were as follows: 94° (1 min) – 42° (1 min) – 68° (1:30), repeated for 35 cycles, with a 7-min terminal extension step at 72° (COI); 94° (1 min) – 42° (1 min) – 72° (1:30), repeated for 35 cycles, with a 7-min terminal extension step at 72° (rhodopsin). Adcock et al., 1999; Shaw, Pierce & Boyle, 1999; Kassahn et al., 2003; Shaw et al., 2004; Perez-Losada et al., 2007). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Comparative phylogeography and species boundaries in. Numbers above branches are clade posterior probability (BPP) estimates; numbers below branches are MPBS values. Four Bayesian analyses, each consisting of one cold and three heated Metropolis-coupled Markov chains, were run simultaneously in MrBayes v. 3.1.1, with random starting trees and trees sampled every 1,000 generations. πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Furthermore, phylogeographic studies of Indian Ocean marine fauna encompass taxa of differing ages, which may have been impacted by different vicariant events or paleooceanographic phenomena (Page, 1990, 1991). Sepia pharaonis is a commercially harvested species, and it is a significant component of cephalopod fisheries throughout its range (Nesis, 1987; Reid, Jereb & Roper, 2005). For both the combined mtDNA dataset and the three-gene dataset, the AICc and BIC values were lowest for the ‘by gene and codon position’ partitioning scheme, indicating that this was the best-fitting partitioning scheme of those evaluated for these data (Table 3). Also known as Cephalopod, Large Striped Cuttlefish, Leave a comment (2008) found that phylogeographic patterns can differ substantially between sympatric species, even when those species are congeneric and ecologically similar. tullbergi clade as sister to a monophyletic S. pharaonis complex (an S. pharaonis sequence from GenBank is distantly related to the S. pharaonis sampled in our study, suggesting that the GenBank specimen was misidentified; this sequence was excluded from the three-gene dataset prior to analysis). At present, we have no divergence time information for clades within the S. pharaonis complex. In the present study, we described their reproductive behavior and characterized their embryonic development. (2007). Scientific name Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Scientific name (unprocessed) Subspecies Species Genus … Unfortunately, fossil cuttlebones are quite rare; the structure and composition of cuttlebones make them less likely to occur as aragonitic fossils than nautiloid or ammonite shells, and postmortem destruction of drifting cuttlebones may severely limit deposition in the first place (Hewitt & Pedley, 1978). Sometimes the boys of these cephalopods will fight each other over a girl they like, but they won't touch each other, they just flash different patterns of colors. Cuttlefishes. *Rerun for 50 million generations. This study expands on the results of Anderson et al. Ten such analyses were run, with bootstrap support values for each node averaged across all 10 runs. Pharaoh Cuttlefish - New hatchling. DNA extraction, PCR product purification, automated DNA sequencing and sequence editing were as described in Anderson et al. (2007) noted, the type localities of S. pharaonis are both in the Red Sea (near El-Tor in the Sinai in the northern Red Sea and near Massawa in Eritrea along the west coast of the Red Sea). We thank Alonso Córdoba, Stephanie Clutts, Mike Venarsky and Adria Pilsits for assistance with DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing and Associate Editor Suzanne Williams and two anonymous reviewers for their very helpful comments and suggestions. The tentacles are deployed to catch prey. 49, Paris, France, DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates, Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology. Multiple data partitioning schemes were tested for Bayesian analyses of the separate and combined datasets. In this study, we build upon Anderson et al. This subclade is sister to a clade comprising all other subclades in the complex (including S. ramani; Fig. Finally, it must be noted that representatives of only 14 sepiid species were used as outgroups in this study. 3), and members of the western Indian Ocean subclade bear distinctly different rhodopsin sequences than nearly all other S. pharaonis sampled in our study. Frank E. Anderson, Ryan Engelke, Kelsey Jarrett, Tooraj Valinassab, Kolliyil S. Mohamed, Pillaru K. Asokan, Parayapanal U. Zacharia, Praulai Nootmorn, Cherdchinda Chotiyaputta, Malcolm Dunning, Phylogeny of the Sepia pharaonis species complex (Cephalopoda: Sepiida) based on analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, Journal of Molluscan Studies, Volume 77, Issue 1, February 2011, Pages 65–75, https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyq034. For the protein-coding gene datasets, the data were either not partitioned or partitioned by codon position (with a separate substitution model for each codon position and model parameters estimated separately for each partition). Differences in phylogeographic patterns across studies of Indo-Pacific neritic taxa are not surprising, given the substantial differences in life history, ecology and behaviour among these taxa. In contrast, ‘N Gulf of Oman 5’ (the specimen placed in the western Indian Ocean clade in the rhodopsin-only phylogeny) was recovered as a member of the Iranian clade in the three-gene phylogeny. Our results show that Sepia ‘pharaonis’ is a complex of at least five subclades (and perhaps six, depending on the status of S. ramani). Like all cuttlefish, they are incredibly intelligent and Pharaoh Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) - Marine Life - Liveaboard Diving Tissue samples were collected from Sepia pharaonis individuals from throughout the range of the species (Table 1, Fig. Only 10 of 523 sites for rhodopsin were variable within S. pharaonis (all but one of these sites were at the third codon position) and only seven of these sites were parsimony-informative. (2004). Rhodopsin sequences for E. scolopes, M. tullbergi and S. officinalis are from different individuals than the mitochondrial sequences. Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 Pharaoh Cuttlefish. The 68 taxa three-gene analysis was only run under the gene and codon partitioning scheme, and included the full set of taxa used in the combined mtDNA analyses. Cephalopod researcher Dr. James Wood sums it up well; “Octopuses, squids, cuttlefish and the chambered nautilus belong to class Cephalopoda, which means ‘head foot”. The Pharaoh Cuttlefish is found in the Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific region growing up to 33cm in length. ; N, Nishiguchi, Lopez & Von Boetzky, 2004; S, Strugnell et al., 2005; T, Takumiya et al., 2005; Y ,Yoshida, Tsuneki & Furuya, 2006; Zheng, X.D., Wang, R.C., Xiao, S. and Chen, B. (2007) based on partial mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequence data collected from S. pharaonis samples from throughout the Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. There are hints that this complex may consist of more than three species; for example, hectocotylus morphology differs between males collected in Japan and Australia (Reid et al., 2005). Upload image Substitution model abbreviations are as follows: GGI = GTR = G = I, HG = HKY85 = G, HI = HKY85 = I, K = K2P, KG = K2P = G; see Anderson & Swofford (2004) for more information on model abbreviations and original citations for each model. The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831, is a commercially fished species found from Japan to East Africa. Sequence data for all outgroups were downloaded from GenBank. Colour changes to match surroundings. A similar pattern has been found in Lunella coronata, a gastropod found on rocky shores from southeastern Africa through the Gulf of Oman to the western Pacific (Williams et al., in review). As Anderson et al. When this value reached 0.01, the runs were terminated. Login on the desktop to upload your own pictures! Depth - 0-130m We suggest that ‘S. The harmonic mean of likelihood values from the stationary phase of each analysis (calculated using the ‘sump’ command in MrBayes v. 3.1.2) was used as an estimate of the model likelihood, following Nylander et al. Though molecular genetic data are scarce for many invertebrate fisheries in part due to the small, local scale of many such fisheries (Thorpe, Sole-Cava & Watts, 2000), several cephalopods are targets of large-scale fisheries, and population genetic studies have been published for a number of these (e.g. Due to the size and composition of the dataset, analyses of each MP bootstrap pseudoreplicate resulted in thousands of equally parsimonious trees. Created to help individuals around the world identify tropical fish Search results from the FishSource database for all stocks and fisheries for this species are available after dismissing this dialog. Pharaoh Cuttlefish We just learned about the Humboldt Squid. Collection locality and GenBank accession data for all specimens of Sepia pharaonis complex. For the multigene analyses, the data were partitioned in three ways: no partitioning (i.e. Login on the desktop to upload your own pictures! Welcome to FishSource, an online information resource about the status of fish stocks and fisheries. COI and rhodopsin sequences obtained in this study were combined with all available sepiid 16S rRNA, COI and rhodopsin sequences in GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) as of 17 February 2009. (2007) and Marshall (2010). Our analyses suggest that S. ramani is part of the S. pharaonis species complex, but that S. ramani 22 may represent a distinct subclade within the complex. In addition, S. pharaonis s. s. spawns between August and October, while S. pharaonis II (in Hong Kong) spawns from March through May and S. pharaonis in India spawns all year round (Norman, 2000). Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, The preservation of the shells of Sepia in the middle Miocene of Malta, Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish, A synopsis of Sepiidae outside Australian waters (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea), A synopsis of Sepiidae in Australian waters (Cephalopoda: Sepioidea), Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy, MacClade: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution, Version 4.08, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA, Cryptic failure of partitioned Bayesian phylogenetic analyses: lost in the land of long trees, Performance-based selection of likelihood models for phylogeny estimation, First multi-generation culture of the tropical cuttlefish, Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined data, Temporal congruence and cladistic analysis of biogeography and cospeciation, Clocks, clades and cospeciation: comparing rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events in host-parasite assemblages, Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish, Selecting the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution, Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests, Evolutionary disequilibrium among Indo-Pacific corals, Generation times and the Quaternary evolution of reef-building corals, Cephalopods of the world. Sepia. The western Indian Ocean subclade appears to be sister to all of the other subclades (Fig. The pharaoh cuttlefish is a large cuttlefish species, growing to 42 cm in mantle length and 5 kg in weight. The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 (Sepiidae) is a broadly distributed neritic demersal cephalopod species found from East Africa to southern Japan. N Gulf of Oman 5, whose mtDNA haplotype is Iranian but whose rhodopsin sequence appears to be from the western Indian Ocean). To avoid these problems, analyses were performed with the temperature set to 0.05 (which resulted in state-swap frequencies of 60–70%) and the branch-length prior mean was reduced to 0.02 using the command ‘brlens = unconstrained:Exp[50.0]’, following the recommendations of McGuire et al. Furthermore, within the Indian Ocean, archipelagos with extensive reef systems such as Seychelles, Mauritius and the Maldives also seem to have been sampled more frequently than the continental shelves of south Asia and northeastern Africa. For the combined mtDNA dataset, all sepiids for which both COI and 16S rRNA sequences were available in GenBank were included as outgroups to provide as robust a test as possible for S. pharaonis monophyly (Table 2). - WHATSTHATFISH.com. Fifty per cent majority-rule consensus Bayesian phylogram (branch lengths equal to the estimated number of substitutions per site averaged across all postburn-in trees) for the combined COI + 16S rRNA dataset, depicting the position of Sepia pharaonis haplotypes within Sepiidae and rooted with sequences from two sepiolid taxa. Species: S. pharaonis. A pharaoh cuttlefish pretends to be a hermit crab, raising its front legs to look like eyestalks and appearing to walk on the bottom of the tank. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models, The monsoon circulation of the Indian Ocean. (2007) and confirmed here corresponds quite well to Norman's S. pharaonis s. s., although we found evidence of a genetic break between the southern and northern Gulf of Oman (see below). πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. Maximum parsimony (MP) bootstrap and Bayesian analyses were performed for each dataset in PAUP* v. 4.0b11 (Swofford, 2002) and MrBayes v. 3.1.1 (Ronquist & Huelsenbeck, 2003). Reid et al. Copyright © 2020 Several phylogenetic analyses were performed for the COI and rhodopsin data individually and for three combinations of data – one consisting of the combined mtDNA data only (i.e. File:Partes de la sepia.ogv. (2007), five strongly supported geographically delimited clades are evident on both the mtDNA and three-gene phylogenies. See Google Images, Also known as Cephalopod, Large Striped Cuttlefish. The geographic regions in question are adjacent to one another; one member of the western Indian Ocean subclade (S Gulf of Oman 1) was collected from the southern coast of the Gulf of Oman, while the Iranian specimens (N Gulf of Oman 2, 3, 4 and 5) were collected about 230 km to the northeast, on the opposite side of the Gulf of Oman. Norman (2000) suggested that S. pharaonis comprises three forms: S. pharaonis (s. s.) (found in the western Indian Ocean from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf; the eastern limit is unknown); S. ‘pharaonis II’ (Japan to the Gulf of Thailand, Philippines and north Australia) and S. ‘pharaonis III’ (Maldives to Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). Sepia (genus) - WikiMili, The Free Encycloped An outer shell once covered the cuttlefish's … In light of this, we suggest that the binomen S. pharaonis be restricted to the western Indian Ocean subclade. ramani’ weakly supported as sister to this clade), an Iranian clade (northeastern Persian Gulf and northern Gulf of Oman), a western Pacific clade and a broadly distributed central Indian Ocean clade (west and east coasts of India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). When these different estimates of sample size caused MrDT-ModSel to select different models for a given data partition, we chose the model with fewer parameters. In this study, a catalog of the chromatic, postural, and locomotor behaviors was produced for the pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) from coastal waters of Okinawa Island, Japan. When raised in the laboratory, the maximum recorded size for males is 16.2 cm, and for females 15.5 cm. The best (lowest) AICc and BIC scores are in bold text. Size: 18 inches (45 cm) ... Genus: Sepia. Range: Indo-West Pacific Ocean: Widspread. Best-fitting DNA substitution models for each partition were chosen by estimating a neighbour-joining tree for the partition using Jukes–Cantor distances in PAUP*. əl‚fish] (invertebrate zoology) An Old World decapod mollusk of the genus Sepia; shells are used to manufacture dentifrices and cosmetics. Sperm … The prey is then pulled toward the animal's strong beak and crushed before consuming. The phylogeny reveals five strongly supported subclades within S. pharaonis: a western Indian Ocean clade (Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and the northeast coast of Oman), a northeastern Australia clade (with a representative of ‘S. unpubl. Conversely, phylogenetic patterns may be concordant across taxa, but these similarities could be due to pseudocongruence, in which similar phylogenetic patterns arise among two or more taxa of different ages that were affected by different vicariant events (Cunningham & Collins, 1994; Donoghue & Moore, 2003). A rate multiplier was used for all partitioned analyses (the rate multiplier associates substitution rates for different partitions with a Dirichlet prior to allow different rates across partitions). (1997) found that a distance of only 30 km of deep ocean severely limits larval dispersal in Pareledone turqueti (Joubin 1905), an Antarctic octopus. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2005) noted that S. pharaonis is the most common species of cuttlefish caught in the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, the Andaman Sea, the Gulf of Thailand, the Philippines and along the southern coast of China, and Nesis (1987) wrote that “[Sepia pharaonis] is the most important object of the cuttlefish fishery in the northern part of the Indian Ocean and southeastern Asia”. They feed on crustaceans and small fish. However, two of the four specimens collected in the Gulf of Oman (N Gulf of Oman 3* and N Gulf of Oman 5) showed discordance between clade membership and collection locality. Furthermore, additional specimens from as-yet-unsampled parts of the range of the S. pharaonis complex must be evaluated, as there may be additional subclades (or species) waiting to be discovered; regions of particular interest are Madagascar, the Philippines, the Yellow Sea (Hwang Hai) and Indonesia. Pharaoh cuttlefish are cephalopods related to cuttlefish, squid, octopus and chambered nautilus. a single substitution model was used for the dataset). Another type of cephalopod is the Pharaoh Cuttlefish. Not Suitable for Fish-Only Tank. Such data could be particularly important for S. pharaonis. This specimen could be misidentified, or it could be a hybrid (or backcross) between S. ramani and S. pharaonis that exhibits S. ramani morphology but carries a S. pharaonis mtDNA haplotype. Only nodes with BPP > 0.90 and/or MPBS > 70% have values associated with them, and support values within geographically delimited clades are not shown. Support values associated with branches are as described for Figure 2. Sepia ramani is a species that is morphologically very similar to S. pharaonis, and there is some question regarding its status as a distinct species. The pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 (Sepiidae) is a broadly distributed neritic demersal cephalopod species found from East Africa to southern Japan. Sepia Temporal range: Miocene – Recent PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N … Estimated Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPPs) of clades on inferred trees were interpreted as measures of support. N Gulf of Oman 3* grouped strongly with the western Indian Ocean subclade on all phylogenies, while N Gulf of Oman 5 grouped with the Iranian subclade (as expected) in the mtDNA and three-gene phylogenies (Figs 2, 3), but with the western Indian Ocean subclade on the rhodopsin phylogeny. There appear to be consistent reproductive differences among these three forms. Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. All of these sequences appear to be protein-coding sequences rather than pseudogenes; translation into amino acids using the flatworm mitochondrial genetic code (COI sequences) or the universal genetic code (rhodopsin sequences) in MacClade v. 4.08 (Maddison & Maddison, 2005) revealed no premature stop codons. Appropriate partitioning schemes for the two multigene datasets were chosen using the AICc (a second-order correction of the Akaike Information Criterion) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), following McGuire et al. Crandall et al. Relationships among these clades remain somewhat poorly supported except for a clade comprising the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade. Flamboyant Cuttlefish: This species is well-named for the rather bright and exuberant pattern of colors on … Relationships among these clades are somewhat poorly resolved, although there is some support for a clade comprising the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade (BPP = 0.74, MPBS = 94%). However, the main spawning season for S. pharaonis in this region is November and December, between the monsoons (Reid et al., 2005) and after the Ras Al Hadd jet has weakened. Upload them now! Both specimens of S. ramani are members of the S. pharaonis complex, but their mtDNA haplotypes are not closely related – one is a member of the central Indian Ocean clade, while the other is rather distantly related to the northeastern Australia clade. Sequences for S. madokai have been removed from GenBank subsequent to the completion of the analyses described in this paper. πία, sēpía, cuttlefish. There is some morphological and behavioural evidence that S. pharaonis may be a complex of closely related species. Prices and download plans . 3), and the distinction between this subclade and all other subclades in the complex is the only distinction that is supported by the rhodopsin sequence data. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Norman (2000) did not distinguish Iranian S. pharaonis from his S. pharaonis s. s., and a photo in Norman (2000: 71) of a mating pair of S. pharaonis from Dubai (in the southern Persian Gulf) is used to demonstrate the zebra lines on the third arms that are supposedly diagnostic for S. pharaonis s. s. If S. pharaonis s. s. is equivalent to our western Indian Ocean subclade, this photo suggests that the Persian Gulf may be home to members of both our Iranian subclade and our western Indian Ocean subclade. The status of S. pharaonis is further complicated by the recent description of a new species, S. ramaniNeethiselvan, 2001 that appears to be closely related to S. pharaonis. Only 16S rRNA sequences are available from the two specimens of S. pharaonis from Taiwan. Mong-Fong Lee, Chun-Yen Lin, Chuan-Chin Chiao, and Chung-Cheng Lu (2016) The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, is one of the most important cephalopod fishery species in southeastern Asia. Also included in this clade are the lesser-known cuttlefish (Sepioidea), the Ram's Horn Squid, which has an internal coiled shell and floats head down in the water, and an enigmatic deep water genus called the "vampire squid" (Vampyromorpha). 's (2007) dataset by (1) adding another mitochondrial gene region and a nuclear gene region in an effort to clarify relationships among subclades of S. pharaonis and test monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex, and (2) by expanding the taxon sample to include specimens of S. ramani. Recovery of a sister pair consisting of the Western Pacific clade and the Central Indian Ocean clade in the S. pharaonis complex, though weakly supported (BPP = 0.94, MPBS < 50%), is consistent with numerous other studies that have found similar sister species or population pairs, with one species (or population) in the Indian Ocean and the other in the Pacific Ocean (Williams et al., 2002 and citations therein; Reid et al., 2006). Partitioning by gene and codon resulted in four data partitions for the combined mtDNA dataset (a 16S rRNA partition and a partition for each COI codon position) and six for the three-gene dataset (16S rRNA, COI positions 1, 2 and 3, rhodopsin positions 1 + 2 and rhodopsin position 3; rhodopsin first and second codon positions were pooled due to low levels of variation). A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and a fragment of the rhodopsin gene were amplified using universal metazoan COI PCR primers (Folmer et al., 1994) and cephalopod-specific rhodopsin PCR primers (Strugnell et al., 2005), and HotStar Master Mix (QIAGEN) following manufacturer's protocols (half-reactions). The broad coastal distribution of this species across biogeographic zones, coupled with the high incidence of cryptic speciation in commercially fished marine invertebrates (including some cephalopods; Yeatman & Benzie, 1994), suggests the presence of multiple stocks. Phylogenies recovered in analyses of the COI and rhodopsin datasets were generally topologically concordant with one another and with phylogenies recovered from the combined analyses, so only the results of the analyses of the two dataset combinations (mtDNA and all three genes) will be discussed in detail and shown here. Customise filters × Customise filters (scroll to see full list) (scroll to see full list) Neethiselvan (2001) noted that S. ramani is difficult to distinguish from S. pharaonis, although he listed some characters that allow the two species to be identified: S. ramani has 5–6 enlarged club suckers, with 3–4 greatly enlarged, whereas S. pharaonis has 15–24 enlarged suckers, all of approximately equal size; and there are 14–16 transverse rows of normal suckers on the hectocotylus of S. ramani, but only 10–12 such rows in S. pharaonis. It is commonly hunted in the Philippines, India, and Persia for food. Anderson et al. The latter finding suggests that the mtDNA and rhodopsin sequences for N Gulf of Oman 5 are in conflict, and that phylogenetic signal from the mtDNA overwhelmed the signal from the rhodopsin data for this specimen in the combined analyses. Allcock et al. Recovery of cuttlebones attributable to the S. pharaonis complex might allow estimation of the age of the complex and divergence times within the complex, allowing phylogeographic comparisons of S. pharaonis with other neritic species in the Indian Ocean. By contrast, the other S. ramani specimen collected from the same area (S. ramani 22) is genetically distinct from all other specimens collected from Indian waters. (2005) depict the distribution of this species as including the coast of Sri Lanka and the southwest coast of India, but this appears to be an error (A. Reid, personal communication). Preliminary analyses suggested that the default temperature (T = 0.2) resulted in very few state swaps between chains, and some analyses were succumbing to the ‘long tree’ problem, in which estimated branch lengths were unreasonably long, as described by Marshall (2010) and Brown et al. Alignment of the COI and rhodopsin sequences was performed by eye in Se-Al v. 2.0a11 (Rambaut, 2002). From FishBase, you are looking for information on human uses of the species 'Sepia pharaonis'. The strong morphological similarities suggest a close relationship between S. pharaonis and S. ramani, but the nature of this relationship is unknown. Despite this bias, there are several phylogeographic studies whose focal taxa are found in many of the same regions where S. pharaonis is found, and comparisons with these studies may be fruitful. Sign in Sign up for FREE Prices and download plans However, currents might facilitate rare dispersal events across the Gulf of Oman at certain times of the year. Sepia ramani is a member of the S. pharaonis species complex, though one of our S. ramani samples may represent an additional, previously unsampled subclade within the complex. Furthermore, the semelparous annual life cycle of many cephalopods (probably including S. pharaonis; Gabr et al., 1998, but see Aoyama & Nguyen, 1989) makes their stocks highly vulnerable to overexploitation (Thorpe et al., 2000). The average longevity of the species is between 1-2 years. The western Indian Ocean clade revealed by Anderson et al. Cuttlefish gather in their hundreds of thousands to spawn. The pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis (Ehrenberg 1831 1999), is distributed in tropical coastal waters in the Indo-Pacific region (Norman and Reid 2000; Nabhitabhata and Nilaphat 1999). The Pharaoh cuttlefish ranks high among the fish export list from Oman. One group of closely related individuals (the central Indian Ocean subclade) is distributed across the central Indian Ocean along the east and west coasts of India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand; in contrast, another group seems to be restricted to the Persian Gulf and northern Gulf of Oman (the Iranian subclade). Also known as the Cephalopod. unpubl.). Watch these pharaoh cuttlefish change their appearance and behavior to mimic hermit crabs. To facilitate the analysis, 100 bootstrap pseudoreplicates were analysed, with the maximum number of trees retained set to 10,000 (maxtrees = 10,000) and a heuristic search with the following parameters: 100 random-addition-sequence replicates (addseq = random nreps = 100), holding 10 trees at each step (hold = 10), retaining only 100 trees of length ≥1 per replicate (nchuck = 100, chuckscore = 1). PCRs were performed using a Perkin-Elmer 9700 thermal cycler. Sepia ramani is so far only known from the Gulf of Mannar in southeastern India (Neethiselvan, 2001). One S. pharaonis specimen was collected in the Arabian Sea, but was found to be a member of the western Indian Ocean clade, suggesting that gene flow between these regions has either occurred recently or is ongoing. As shown by Anderson et al. (2007) and using equations listed in Posada & Buckley (2004). Sepia pharaonis has also been proposed as a promising species for mariculture due to its high spawning success, rapid rate of growth, disease resistance and tolerance of crowding and handling (Minton et al., 2002; Barord, Keister & Lee, 2010). 5 kg, and for females 50 cm and 2 kg in … The taxonomic status of S. ramani (as well as usage of the binomen S. pharaonis itself) hinges on the taxonomic status of the five unnamed subclades, and this cannot be fully addressed without detailed morphological and morphometric work, preferably coupled with additional genetic data collection to provide a link with our study. By comparison, the rhodopsin data showed very low levels of variation. genetically, the range of this form extends north and west of the Maldives along the Indian coast). Photography By: Ramin Ketabi Editor:Shahla Jamili (IFSRI) The. Fifty per cent majority-rule consensus Bayesian phylogram for the combined three-gene (COI + 16S rRNA + rhodopsin) dataset for the Sepia pharaonis complex. The relationships among the S. pharaonis subclades are still not fully resolved, but some inferences can be made. The deepest divergence within the S. pharaonis complex is between the western Indian Ocean clade and the rest of the complex. (2007) found that S. pharaonis comprises five distinct clades: a western Indian Ocean clade (Gulf of Aden and Red Sea), a northeastern Australia clade, an Iranian clade (northern Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf), a central Indian Ocean clade (India and the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand) and a western Pacific clade. Tweet; Description: This is the moment of the hatching of a Pharaoh Cuttlefish. (2010). Surprisingly, it does not group with the central Indian S. pharaonis subclade; it groups with the northeastern Australia subclade, although it is quite distinct even from the latter subclade. Sepia pharaonis shows considerable morphological and behavioural variation across its range, leading Norman (2000) to suggest that S. pharaonis s. l. consists of three forms: S. pharaonis s. s. (Red Sea to the Gulf of Oman, including the Persian Gulf), Sepia pharaonis II (western Pacific and northern Australia) and S. pharaonis III (Maldives to the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand). GenBank accession numbers for all outgroup taxa. [Pharaoh Cuttlefish; Sepia pharaonis] The photo specimen to the the left was the same type of Cuttlefish pictured in the previous paragraph, but viewed from the bottom. Though we did not obtain samples from the type localities, we did obtain samples from the Yemeni Red Sea coast (340 km east of Massawa) and found that these specimens were members of our western Indian Ocean subclade. Have a photo you want identified? A topological similarity criterion (the average standard deviation in partition frequency values across independent runs) was used to automatically assess convergence of the runs. It is possible that Pleistocene glaciations also played a role in the divergence between the central Indian Ocean and western Pacific clades of S. pharaonis, though the current lack of divergence time information for the S. pharaonis complex limits our ability to test hypotheses of causality. Males are larger than females, the maximum recorded size for males is 80 cm and. Sepia pharaonis is a neritic demersal species so direct dispersal across the Gulf of Oman seems unlikely. Sepia ramani could be a close relative of the S. pharaonis complex, it could be a genetically distinct subclade (or species) within that complex or it could represent aberrant specimens of S. pharaonis. Sepia ramani is a neritic demersal southeastern Indian species that is morphologically very similar to S. pharaonis, and there has been some controversy regarding the status of S. ramani as a distinct species. Genetic divergence between Indian and Pacific populations of marine species has been attributed to reductions in gene flow during repeated periods of glaciation over the last 140,000 years, which resulted in lower sea levels, reduced transfer of warm surface water between the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins and increased cold-water upwelling as recently as 18,000 years ago (Potts, 1983, 1984; Fleminger, 1986; Springer & Williams, 1990; Williams et al., 2002). The combined mtDNA phylogeny is shown in Figure 2. To our knowledge, no fossil cuttlebones attributable to S. pharaonis have been found. Widespread Mediterranean, Indo-West Pacific pharaonis’ may consist of several species, but morphological work is needed to clarify species-level taxonomy within this complex. AICc values shown were calculated using the number of variable characters; AICc values calculated using all characters were similar. This investigation of S. pharaonis phylogeography may shed some light on biogeographic patterns of neritic animals in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Parts of a sepia. Want to share your pictures? in 80–100% EtOH as part of an earlier study (Anderson et al., 2007). Both the combined mtDNA phylogeny and the three-gene phylogeny place a specimen denoted on the phylogenies as ‘N Gulf of Oman 3*’ (collected from the Iranian coast of the Gulf of Oman) within the western Indian Ocean clade with strong support. Sepia pharaonis. 1) and shipped to the first author (F.E.A.) Customise filters (scroll to see full list) Taxon. Map showing the type localities for Sepia pharaonis (*) and sampling localities, modified from Anderson et al. There is generally little evidence of migration of cuttlefish between geographic regions in our data. The number of parameters, run length (‘length’) in millions of generations, best-fitting models, and AICc and BIC values for different partitioning schemes for the combined mtDNA (16S rRNA + COI) and three-gene (16S rRNA + COI + rhodopsin) datasets. Reid et al. found during their scuba dive and snorkelling excursions. (2007): 1, Red Sea; 2, Gulf of Aden; 3, Persian Gulf (Iran); 4, northern Gulf of Oman (Iran); 5, southern Gulf of Oman (Oman); 6, Veraval; 7, Kochi; 8, Tuticorin; 9, Vishakapatanam; 10, Phuket; 11, Prachuap; 12, Chumphon; 13, Taiwan; 14, Gulf of Carpentaria; 15, northeast Queensland. Despite the commercial importance of S. pharaonis, very little has been published on the phylogeography or population genetics of this species, presumably due in part to its broad geographic distribution. This time, when 33 cuttlefish … Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Phylogenetic relationships among major species of Japanese coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using three mitochondrial DNA sequences, Exploited marine invertebrates: genetics and fisheries, Morphology and late quaternary sedimentation in the Gulf of Oman Basin, Patterns of speciation and dispersal along continental coastlines and island arcs in the Indo-West Pacific turbinid gastropod genus, The marine Indo-West Pacific break: contrasting the resolving power of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, Phylogeny of selected Sepiidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) on 12S, 16S, and COI sequences, with comments on the taxonomic reliability of several morphological characters, © The Author 2010. Upon topological convergence, the first 25% of trees from each run were removed as burn-in. Furthermore, the cuttlebone of S. pharaonis has a distinctive cuplike extension covering the striated zone of the posterior inner cone (Khromov et al., 1998; Norman, 2000), which may allow fossil members of the S. pharaonis complex to be identified. For each dataset or partition, models were evaluated by using all sites or only variable sites as estimates of sample size (Posada & Buckley, 2004). Likelihoods of the data for each partition were calculated using PAUP* under all standard nucleotide substitution models available in MrBayes v. 3.1.1. The majority of coleoids are squid species, and most of these animals are torpedo … In short, two of our subclades correspond well to the forms described by Norman (2000), but we found that his S. pharaonis II represents at least two genetically distinct groups, and we have also found evidence for a distinct Iranian subclade. Later, when the researchers were conducting more experiments on cuttlefish hunting, the behavior appeared again. This finding was foreshadowed by Reid et al. However when in danger, the cuttlefish sucks water into their body cavity and expels it through a funnel like extension on the underside of the body, causing a backward propulsion enabling the cuttlefish to escape from predators. Our central Indian Ocean subclade may be Norman's S. pharaonis III, although we found that S. pharaonis individuals collected along the west coast of India from as far north and west as Veraval are also members of this clade (i.e. The cuttlefish isn’t a fish at all – it is a cephalopod. We generated a total of 46 COI sequences and 43 rhodopsin sequences (Table 1). For the three-gene dataset, GenBank data for COI, 16S rRNA and rhodopsin were only available for three outgroup species (two sepiids – Sepia officinalis and Metasepia tullbergi – and one sepiolid, Euprymna scolopes), so two analyses were performed – one in which only these three taxa were used as outgroups and one in which all sepiid and sepiolid taxa used in the combined mtDNA data analyses were used as outgroups. The Gulf of Oman ranges from 60 km (at the Strait of Hormuz) to 370 km wide (from Ras Al Hadd, Oman to Gwadar Bay, Pakistan) and the Gulf of Oman basin is about 3,400 m deep (Uchupi, Swift & Ross, 2002). Cuttlefish possess the ability to swim in different manners, usually gently rippling their side fins. ''Sepia pharaonis'' is likely a complex of at least three species, ''Sepia pharaonis I'', commonly located in the Red Sea … Phylogenetic analyses of a dataset comprising all three-gene regions revealed a monophyletic S. pharaonis complex consisting of a western Indian Ocean clade, a northeastern Australia clade, a Persian Gulf/Arabian Sea (‘Iranian’) clade, a western Pacific clade and a central Indian Ocean clade. Given that there are over 100 described species within Sepiidae (Khromov et al., 1998; Lu, 1998), our inference of monophyly for the S. pharaonis complex must be considered provisional pending sampling of additional sepiid species. These calculations required estimation of model likelihoods. *Latitude and longitude not available, collected near Muscat, Oman. Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Cephalopoda Order: Sepiida Family: Sepiidae Genus: Sepia (Subgenus: Sepia ) Species: officinalis Population genetic status of the western Indian Ocean: what do we know? Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh_cuttlefish. Investigations using metazoan 18S rDNA, Stock assessment of cuttlefish off the coast of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Journal of Shimonoseki University of Fisheries. During the southwestern (summer) monsoon, the Ras Al Hadd jet (a continuation of the Somali and Oman Coastal Currents that flows eastward from the eastern tip of Oman; Schott & McCreary, 2001) and the cyclonic eddy it produces in the Gulf of Oman could promote occasional dispersal of S. pharaonis juveniles across the Gulf. Length - 33cm to compare only substitution models that are available in MrBayes v. 3.1.1 (Perl script available upon request to F.E.A.). Not Reef Tank Suitable. Within the western half of the Indian Ocean, three S. pharaonis clades were found, with a possible boundary between the Iranian clade and the western Indian Ocean clade in the Gulf of Oman. We have also added sequence data from two specimens of Sepia ramaniNeethiselvan, 2001, collected in southeastern India. Found in shallow waters over sand and seagrass beds of coral and rocky reefs. They feed by catching their prey by two powerful tentacles which shoot out from beneath the creatures eyes. Pharaoh Cuttlefish: This is a large species of cuttlefish that inhabits the Pacific region between Japan and Australia and as far west as the Red Sea. While mating, S. pharaonis s. s. males show zebra lines on the third arm pair, while S. pharaonis II males have broken lines and S. pharaonis III males have spots (Norman, 2000). Previous morphological and genetic work (the latter based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene) suggested that S. pharaonis is a species complex, but relationships within the complex remained unresolved. Sepia pharaonis is a commercially harvested species, and it is a significant component of cephalopod fisheries throughout its range ( Nesis, 1987 ; … DNA markers indicate that distinct spawning cohorts and aggregations of Patagonian squid, Subtle population structuring within a highly vagile marine invertebrate, the veined squid, Widely distributed Pacific plate endemics and lowered sea-level, Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using a multigene approach; the effect of data partitioning on resolving phylogenies in a Bayesian framework, PAUP*. Found in shallow waters over sand and seagrass beds of coral and rocky reefs. Our only specimens from the Persian Gulf are members of the Iranian subclade, but we do not know if members of the western Indian Ocean subclade are also found in the Persian Gulf, so we cannot discern whether the boundary between these two subclades is in the Gulf of Oman or the Persian Gulf (or both). These likelihood scores were used to select a best-fitting substitution model using ‘MrDT-ModSel’, a modification of DT-ModSel (Minin et al., 2003) developed by F.E.A. One specimen that we sequenced (S. ramani 23) is a member of the central Indian Ocean subclade of S. pharaonis (Figs 2, 3). The focus on species or species groups that span the boundary between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean (the ‘marine Wallace's Line’; Barber et al., 2000) is understandable, given the importance of this region in both marine and continental biogeography, but it does not provide much insight into Indian Ocean phylogeography. Males can only produce once and the females die shortly after laying their eggs. Attempts to untangle this putative species complex using molecular genetic data have been limited to a study by Anderson et al. The three-gene phylogeny is shown in Figure 3. The Eggs are like table tennis balls, around 1-inch in diameter. In contrast to analyses of the combined mtDNA data alone, the three-gene dataset gives some support for monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex (BPP = 0.70, MPBS = 81%) and a close relationship among the Iranian clade, the western Pacific clade and the central Indian Ocean clade (BPP = 0.96, MPBS = 93%). Video by Japan Ethological Society & Springer Japan. Search for other works by this author on: Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Regional Centre, Bidia, Central Research Centre of CMFRI (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute), South Beach Road, Tuticorin 628001, Tamil Nadu, Andaman Sea Fisheries Research and Development Center, 77 Tumbon Vichit, Maung District, Phuket 83000, Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, 92 Paholyothin 7, Bangkok 10400, Assessment and Monitoring, Fisheries Policy and Sustainability, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, GPO Box 46, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the squid Illex argentinus during a period of intensive fishing, Restricted gene flow and evolutionary divergence between geographically separated populations of the Antarctic octopus Pareledone turqueti, Should we be worried about long-branch attraction in real data sets? Neethiselvan (2001) also noted that some morphometric characters (cuttlebone width, inner cone length and tentacular club length) could be useful for distinguishing between the species, but there is some overlap between the two species in all of these characters. Determining the effects of stocking density and temperature on growth and food consumption in the pharaoh cuttlefish, The rhodopsin gene of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: sequence and spectral tuning, When trees grow too long: investigating the causes of highly inaccurate Bayesian branch-length estimates, Contrasting demographic history and phylogeographical patterns in two Indo-Pacific gastropods, Developing model systems for molecular biogeography: vicariance and interchange in marine invertebrates, Molecular ecology and evolution: approaches and applications, Toward an integrative historical biogeography, The Pleistocene equatorial barrier between the Indian and Pacific oceans and a likely cause for Wallace's Line, UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science, no. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Genus: Sepia . They are also able to shoot a cloud of black ink at predators when threatened. In this case, our samples seem to have come from at or near a boundary between two subclades, and we are detecting either migrants or individuals resulting from crosses or backcrosses between members of these two subclades (e.g. The Bayesian consensus phylogram does not clearly support monophyly of the S. pharaonis complex; sequences from Metasepia tullbergi and S. lycidas are part of a polytomy that includes all S. pharaonis specimens sampled in this study, although one resolution of this polytomy would have the S. lycidas/M. (2005), who noted that hectocotylus morphology differs between S. pharaonis specimens from Japan (presumably members of our western Pacific subclade, though it is possible that Japan is home to yet another S. pharaonis subclade) and Australia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London, all rights reserved, Assessing the systematics of Tylodinidae in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean: resurrecting, Environmental correlates of distribution across spatial scales in the intertidal gastropods, Feeding and digestion periodicity of Manila clam, Ontogenesis of the digestive gland through the planktotrophic stages of, High cryptic diversity in the kleptoparasitic genus, About the Malacological Society of London, http://evolve.zoo.ox.ac.uk/software/Se-Al, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, HM164519, HM164524, HM164525, HM164527, HM164536, HM164489, HM164491, HM164492, HM164532, HM164533, Copyright © 2020 The Malacological Society of London. Partition abbreviations are as follows: C, COI; R, rhodopsin; C1, COI position 1; C2, COI position 2; C3, COI position 3; R12, rhodopsin position 1 + position 2; R3, rhodopsin position 3. All hope is not lost, however, because sepiids possess a calcified structure that would seemingly be amenable to fossilization – the cuttlebone. This research was supported by NSF Grant DEB-0235794 to F.E.A. Data were collected from aquacultured animals using egg masses sampled from around the island and hatched in aquaria during 2010, 2011, … Data showed very low levels of variation the partitioned datasets, all model parameters except topology and branch lengths unlinked... Present study, we described their reproductive behavior and characterized their embryonic development the... Would seemingly be amenable to fossilization – the cuttlebone, but the other subclades in the study. Appear to be sister to the completion of the species is well-named for the partition using Jukes–Cantor distances PAUP! 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